An Interview with China Numismatic Museum Director Zhou Weirong

Chinese currency, with its long history, is one of the most wonderful currencies. Chinese coins, with their great profundity, are known around the world. One of the major tasks of the bilingual Journal of East Asian Numismatics is to promote the exchange of numismatic cultures between China and the West, introduce Chinese coins to foreign countries, and introduce foreign numismatic culture to China. To this end, I conducted an interview with Mr. Zhou Weirong, the director of the Chinese Numismatic Museum on January 26, 2024. (Fig. 1)

Fig. 1  Recent photo of Mr. Zhou Weirong

Zhou Weirong, Director of the Chinese Numismatic Museum (2014.10-2024.02), Researcher, Doctoral Supervisor.
He is the Secretary General of the Chinese Numismatic Society and Chairman of the Academic Committee of the Chinese Numismatic Society.
He is also a Doctoral Supervisor of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and a Guest Professor of the University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Nanjing University, University of Science and Technology Beijing, and Hebei Normal University.

Yuan: Hello, Mr. Zhou! We are old acquaintances. Two years ago, I accompanied Mr. Michael Chou, President of Champion Auction and Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics, to visit you twice. The first visit was to listen to your suggestions for further development of the journal, and the second was to ask for your opinion on the Top Chinese Coins - Third Edition (Fig. 2). After we sat down, you answered the questions with clear points of view. Although the conversation was short, I had a deep impression.
Fig. 2 Group photo taken in the office of Zhou Weirong on August 19, 2020.
 From left: Yuan Shuiqing, Zhou Weirong, Michael Chou
Zhou:First of all, thank you for the interview. Michael Chou has spared no effort in promoting the international exchange of numismatics over the years and has been regarded as the "Overseas Chinese Coin Digger" by the numismatic community. He has been traveling in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan and countries in Europe, North America, and Southeast Asia for many years, participating in numismatic activities and promoting Sino-foreign numismatic exchanges, which are well recognized in the numismatic community. JEAN is well-run and has its own style. There will be opportunities for more cooperation in the future.

Yuan:Thank you! This interview will be divided into four parts. First, please give an introduction to the Chinese Numismatic Museum, the Chinese Numismatic Society, and the museum journal 'Chinese Numismatics' (《中國錢幣》). Also, please introduce a few major events you have done during your term of office in terms of reform as well as your personal academic achievements.

Zhou:Okay. The numismatic museum is a place for collecting, protecting, researching, and displaying items that have witnessed human monetary culture and monetary and economic activities. Then I'll start by introducing the Chinese Numismatic Museum. What do you want to know?

Yuan :The Chinese Numismatic Museum is the main window to show Chinese coins to the world. Although the official website has a brief introduction to the museum, people would like to know more about it. I know that Dai Zhiqiang (戴志強) was the first director of the museum, the second was Huang Xiquan (黃錫全), the third was Li Ming (李明), and you are the current one. May I ask when your museum was founded and where is the original site? Which institution was housed in the current site of the museum in the Republic of China?

Zhou:The Chinese Numismatic Museum was founded in 1992 in the building of the People's Bank of China, and later moved to No.17 Xijiaominxiang Alley which was a financial district in the late Qing and Republican periods. The current exhibition building is the former site of the Commercial Guarantee Bank of Chihli. (Fig. 3)
Fig. 3 Chinese Numismatic Museum
Yuan:It is reported that the National Museum of China has a collection of 200,000 coins, including 1,800 rarities. I have visited its special exhibition, the ancient Chinese coin exhibition. Your museum is directly affiliated with the People's Bank of China, as a top national-level numismatic museum in the industry, with more than 300,000 pieces (sets) of coins from all ages. All the best coins are gathered there. The number and variety of collectibles top domestic numismatic museums. The 'Selected Collection of the Chinese Numismatic Museum' (《中國錢幣博物館藏品選》), compiled by the museum, shows some of the finest pieces in the collection. How many pieces (sets) of them are rare? Please introduce the rarities of the ancient coin collection first.  
Zhou : Our museum has not formally announced a rare collection, but according to my understanding over the years, there are no less than 1,000 rare coins in the collection. For example, we have a hollow-head spade coin inscribed with zhong yi huang jin [重以黃釿], knife coins of yin yang [圁陽] area, six-character knife coin from the State of Qi, a copper plate coin inscribed with shi jin yi zhu [視金一朱, the value of the plate coin is equal to 1 zhu], gold and silver shell coins of the Warring States, horseshoe-shaped gold ingots of the Qin and Han dynasties, gold wu zhu [五銖] coins of the Han dynasty, silver ingot issued by Yang Guo-Zhong (楊國忠) in the Tang dynasty, boat-shaped silver ingots of the Tang dynasty, gold ingots inscribed with su zhai han wu lang [Hang Wu-lang of the Su's], silver ingots inscribed with cheng an bao huo [legal tender in the Empire Cheng'an's reign] of the Jin dynasty, a bronze paper money plate inscribed with sheng zhi hui yi jiao chao [聖旨回易交鈔, paper notes issued under the imperial edict] (Fig. 4) of the Jin dynasty (Fig. 5). 

Fig. 4 Copper plate for the paper money of the Jin Dynasty Fig. 5 The mold of
gong shi nv qian (公式女錢)of
the Southern Dynasty unearthed from Nanjing
Yuan:What are some of the rare vintage coins in the museum collection?
Zhou:The vintage coin is a specialty collection of our museum with a large number of rarities. For example, a Sun Yat-sen Founding of the Republic of China One Dollar Silver Coin Gold Pattern (Fig. 6), a 1914 Yuan Shikai Gold Dollar, a Yuan Shikai Republican Commemorative One Dollar Silver Coin Gold Pattern, Tang Chi-Yao Commemorative gold coins, a 1920 Nye Sze Chung Commemorative Gold Coin minted by the Anching Mint, 1921 Hsu Shih-Chang Medals, a Tuan Qi-Jui Commemorative Silver Dollar Gold Pattern, a Civil Tsao Kun Constitution Gold Coin, a Military Tsao Kun Cross-Flag Gold Coin, 1906 and 1907 Empire Gold Taels, a 1911 Empire Short Whisker Dragon Dollar Silver, and 1 mace and 2 mace Sinkiang Ration gold coins.
Yuan:What are the key collections of modern coins issued by the People's Bank of China? Is the first set of RMB in your museum complete? Is there a 2000 10 kg millennium commemorative gold coin?

Zhou:Almost all the coins issued by the People's Bank of China are in our museum. The first set of RMB is complete, and the other sets of RMB are also complete. We have the 2000 10 kg millennium commemorative gold coin and also a 5kg Gold Coin Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the Gold Panda Coin. In terms of the modern precious metal coins, our museum is the top domestically.

Yuan:According to the information, the National Numismatic Collection of the National Museum of American History has 1.6 million coins, including Chinese coins. The American Numismatic Society also has a number of Chinese coins in its collection. Your museum has coins from more than 100 countries. How many pieces are there in your museum? What are some of the well-known coins?

Zhou:Our museum has more than 3,000 foreign coins from more than 120 countries, among which there are also some famous and rare coins, such as 1588 and 1641 Spanish gold coins, 1682 and 1788 British gold coins, a 1741 Dutch gold coin, 1808 and 1834 Italian gold coins, a 1838 French gold coin, 1774 Mexican gold coins, 1826 Peru gold coins, a Portuguese Cross Silver Cake, a Spanish Phillip III silver coin, Spanish pillar dollars silver coins, Spanish Carlos III silver coins, and Dutch rider coins.
Fig. 6 Gold pattern of the Sun Yat Sen One Dollar Silver Commemorating the Birth of the Republic of China
Yuan:Please introduce the source of the museum collection. I learned from the auction market that famous Chinese coins have come out one after another. There are some unique ones and highly rare coins, breaking auction records. Most of these coins went to private collectors. For example, a mother 500-cash xian feng yuan bao cash coin [咸豐元寶寶泉當五百雕母] realized RMB 11.8 million (Fig. 7), a trial coin of 100-cash Gansu xian feng zhong bao [咸豐重寶背寶鞏當百] realized RMB 4.37 million (China Guardian 2023 Spring Auction), the Fengtien Tael realized RMB 46.575 Yuan (Chengxuan 2022 Spring Auction, as the sixth highest price for a coin to realize at a public auction), and a 5kg Gold Coin Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the Gold Panda Coin realized over RMB 10 million (auctioned by Taisei on April 30, 2010, with a hammer price of RMB 127.6 million). Does your museum have any plans to buy such top coins and enrich the collection? 
 Fig. 7 A mother coin for 500-cash xian feng yuan bao cash coin,
58.57mm in diameter and 65.93 grams in weight,
realized 233 million Yen at Taisei Auction on Apr. 29, 2022.


Zhou:The coins in our museum come from a variety of sources, including those allocated by the People's Bank of China, those transferred by cultural institutes and museums, those purchased from the public, those donated by the public, and those bought from auctions. As far as the collection is concerned, our museum first considers its cultural relic value and academic value rather than its market value. At present, there is no plan to buy top coins that are sought after by the market. In fact, many of the patterns in our museum are among the top coins in the industry.
Fig. 8  A partial of the General Chinese Currency History Exhibition
Yuan:The collection is for display for appreciation and for research. The exhibits of your museum are divided into the Basic Chinese Currency Hall and the Special Exhibition Hall. By visiting the exhibition, you can learn about history, gain knowledge, and enjoy art. How many parts does the General Chinese Currency History Exhibition have? (Fig. 8) What special exhibitions have been organized?
Zhou:The General Chinese Currency History Exhibition we are now launching is a complete system from pre-Qin currency to the first set of RMB. It is arranged with time as the main line. In each period, the coins and currencies are integrated with the corresponding history. The whole exhibition covers iron coins, cash coins, gold and silver coins, coin molds, and casting techniques, in a continuum. The most notable feature of our exhibition is that it fully draws on the new achievements of the academic community and fully showcases the rarities in the collection. Therefore, most of the rarities in the collection mentioned above can be seen in this exhibition. The exhibition competed in the 2021 China Top 10 Exhibitions Competition and won a Merit Award.

In the past decade, we have organized more than 30 special exhibitions, including a specialized exhibition commemorating the millennium of the birth of paper notes, World Exotic Coin Exhibition, Arduous and Brilliant - Precious Metal Commemorative Coin Exhibition in Celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China, Remembering the Beginning, Keeping the Mission in Mind - Red Financial History Exhibition, Witnessing History - Sun Yat-sen Coin Exhibition in Commemoration of the 110th Anniversary of the Revolution of 1911, Glorious Years - Exhibition of Specialized Financial Purchase Certificates Issued by the People's Bank of China since the Founding of the People's Republic of China, Beautiful China - the Beautiful Land on the RMB, Revisiting History - People's Bank of China 70th Anniversary Exhibition, Exhibition of Coins of the State of Qi, Welcoming the 19th National Congress – Exhibition of Personal Collection of the Staff in the People's Bank of China, International Coin and Seal Art Exhibition, Choice Chinese Copper Coin Exhibition, A Great View - Exhibition of Choice Coins of Peking Mint Bureau of the Qing Dynasty, Chinese Folk Coin Exhibition, The Glory of the Overseas Chinese – Exhibition of Oversea Chinese from Wuyi, Jiangmen in Modern Times, The Silk Road Currency Exhibition, Exhibition of World Railway on Coins, Chinese Coin and Calligraphy Art Exhibition, Bank Card 30th Anniversary Exhibition, Retrospective Exhibition on the 30th Anniversary of the Issuance of China's Ordinary Commemorative Coins, and Exhibition on the Establishment of the People's Bank of China.       

Yuan:Your museum is a national center for the study of numismatic culture, with many talented people, strong research power, and a rich collection of numismatic objects, 13,000 books, and 5,000 journals. How many books have been compiled by your museum? What have been the new achievements in academic research in the past five years?
Zhou:In the early years, the Chinese Numismatic Museum and the Chinese Numismatic Society devoted themselves to editing and publishing complete catalogs, numismatic dictionaries, and series of books. We have organized or participated in the compilation of a series of books, including 'Currency History of the Chinese Revolutionary Bases' (Financial Publishing House), a 'Chinese Numismatic Dictionary' (Chung Hwa Book Co.), 'Archive of Precious Chinese Financial Relics' (Central Party Literature Press), 'Chinese Numismatic Series' (Chung Hwa Book Co.), 'Essays on Chinese Numismatics' (Series 1-6, Financial Publishing House), and 'Selected Collections of the Chinese Numismatic Museum' (Cultural Relics Press). In recent years, we have focused on encouraging and promoting the publication of scholarly works and published more than 10 books, including 'Numismatics and History of Casting' (Science Press, 2015), 'Scientific Study of Ancient Chinese Silver Ingots' (Science Press, 2017), 'Chinese Copper Coin Exhibition' (Science Press, 2017), 'History of Ancient Chinese Material Culture-Currency' (Kaiming Press, 2018), 'Research on the Casting Process of Ancient Chinese Coins' (Science Press, 2022), 'Historical Currency in China' (Science Press, 2022), and 'Coins Issued by the Red Regime: The Legend of the Red Purse' (Workers' Publishing House, 2023).
In the past five years, we have made new achievements in academic research. For instance, we made an in-depth study of early coins and the origin of coins, put forward the theory that Chinese currency originated from jewelry and gifts, and we made an in-depth study of ancient Chinese gold and silver coins. In addition, we clarified the time and background of the generation of ancient Chinese gold and silver coins, interpreted the names and connotations of horseshoe gold ingot and unicorn gold ingot unearthed from the Tomb of Marquis Haihun (海昏侯), and argued for the evolution and connotations of ancient Chinese silver ingots. In-depth research was conducted on the causes, timing, and impact of early jiao zi [交子] paper notes, the authenticity and identity of the qiansicang [千斯倉] story painting paper money plate was verified, and the Consensus of Chengdu Conference (an academic consensus commemorating the 1,000th anniversary of the birth of paper notes) was released. On the basis of systematic research on the casting process of ancient Chinese coins, we published the book 'Research on the Casting Process of Ancient Chinese Coins'. We have published representative articles, including 'A New Look at the Origins of Currencies', 'On the Nature of Currency and the Origin of Chinese Coin' ('Chinese Numismatics', June 2023), 'A Study of the Gold Cake Types of the Warring States, Qin and Han Dynasties' ('Journal of National Museum of Chinese History', November 2018), 'Study on the Problems of Early Gold and Gold Currency in Ancient China' ('Journal of National Museum of Chinese History', March 2021), 'A Treatise on Silver Coins in Ancient Chinese Silver Ingots: Form and Connotation' ('Study on the Problems of Silver Coins and Historical Changes in China', China Financial Publishing House, 2021), 'The Origins of Silver Currency in Ancient China' ('Palace Museum Journal', September, 2023), 'Counterfeiting of Qiansicang Paper Money Plate in Song Dynasty', 'Identification of Plates of the Qiansicang Paper Money and Hui Zi Paper Money in the Southern Song Dynasty' ('Chinese Numismatics', March and April 2023), 'Identification of the Geng Shi Wu Zhu' ('Chinese Numismatics', May 2022), and 'Sphere and Triangle Patterns on Gold Jewelry in the North During the Warring States Period' ('Ancient Civilization Research Newsletter', June 2023).

Yuan:By the way, how many other state-owned numismatic museums are there in the country? Which ones are relatively well-run and have publications?

Zhou:At present, there are about 40 state-owned numismatic and banking museums in China. The Shanghai Banking Museum, the Qilu Coin Museum, and the Ningbo Numismatic Museum have their own publications and are well-run.
Yuan:Next, please introduce the general situation of the Chinese Numismatic Society. On June 26, 1982, the Chinese Numismatic Society, the first numismatic society since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, was founded in Beijing. What is its nature and purpose? Who has assumed chairman and secretary-general of the society? I also wonder about the number of existing members and directors. What is its relationship with provincial and municipal numismatic societies?
Zhou:The Chinese Numismatic Society is a national, academic, and non-profit social organization formed voluntarily by institutes and individuals engaged in the study of numismatics, monetary history, banking, and financial history. To put it simply, the purpose of the society is to organize and promote national research on numismatics and monetary history under the guidance of national policies, to inherit, protect, and give full play to the historical value of coins and financial cultural relics, to carry forward the excellent traditional culture, and to provide professional services for the relevant decision of the state. Geng Daoming (耿道明) and Yang Bingchao (楊秉超) were the first chairman and general secretary respectively; Tong Zengyin (童贈銀) and Dai Zhiqiang (戴志強) were the second and third; Yin Jieyan (殷介炎) and Dai Zhiqiang were the fourth; Shi Jilaing (史紀良) and Dai Zhiqiang were the fifth; Ma Delun (馬德倫) and Huang Xiquan (黃錫全) were the sixth; Jin Qi (金琦) and Li Ming (李明) were the seventh. I am the eighteen general secretary and the position of chairman is currently vacant. There are more than 70 institute members and more than 1,700 individual members, including 139 directors. It is a business guidance relationship with provincial and municipal numismatic societies.

Yuan:The Chinese Numismatic Society is now in its eighth session, and the Secretariat of the society and the China Numismatic Museum work in the same place. What is their relationship?

Zhou:The Chinese Numismatic Museum is the affiliated institute of the Chinese Numismatic Society, and the Secretariat of the society is a department of the Museum, which is mainly responsible for the daily affairs of the society, and also for some of the work of the Museum.

Yuan:What international numismatic exchanges has the Chinese Numismatic Society carried out? Are there any new plans?
Zhou:The Chinese Numismatic Society has always attached great importance to international numismatic academic exchange activities, and has maintained long-term contacts with the International Numismatic Council, the French Numismatic Society, the British Royal Numismatic Society, the American Numismatic Society, and most of the numismatic organizations in Southeast Asian countries. We also keep in touch with quite a number of famous numismatic museums (departments) in the world. We go global mainly through the exchange platforms of the two international organizations. One is the International Numismatic Council, which holds a general meeting every six years. Since our establishment, we have organized Chinese delegations to attend almost every meeting. The other is the International Committee for Money and Banking Museums, an organization that holds an annual conference once a year, and the Chinese Numismatic Museum is one of the initiators of the organization. Chinese Numismatic Museum and the Chinese Numismatic Society of China organize a Chinese delegation to participate in every annual conference. In addition, the Chinese Numismatic Society organizes special visits and exchanges according to the needs of thematic research and international exchanges. This year, we plan to organize a delegation to attend the 2024 Annual Meeting of the International Committee for Money and Banking Museums (ICOMON). We also invited foreigners to exchange in China mainly through the platform of the Beijing International Coin Expo.
Yuna:The Gold Coin Award established by the Chinese Numismatic Society was the highest academic award for the Chinese numismatic community, and it was very popular. However, it was later canceled, and I want to hear the reason for its cancellation.

Zhou: The Chinese Numismatic Society has held the Gold Coin Award for four years. It was discontinued during the seventh session of the Board of Directors (2013) in response to the requests to reduce all kinds of awarding activities nationwide.
Yuan:The third part is about 'Chinese Numismatics'. This journal is the first modern Chinese numismatic journal. This national scholarly numismatic journal with wide influence was founded in 1983 (Fig. 9), as the first numismatic publication to be publicly circulated both at home and abroad. The first editor-in-chief was Qian Jiaju (千家駒). I have an inaugural issue in my collection and purchased the early CD-ROMs. The successive editors-in-chief were Dai Zhiqiang, Huang Xiquan, Yao Shuomin (姚朔民), Zhou Weirong, and Gao Congming (高聰明). I have read every issue over the years. Can you tell me about the features of the journal and its current prints? Is it possible to place advertisements?
Fig. 9 The inaugural issue of the 'Chinese Numismatics',
with the journal name written by Shu Tong

Zhou:The journal has set columns such as a numismatics forum, monetary history research, numismatic rarities, excavation and discovery, banks and banknotes, red finance, foreign coins, numismatic events and other columns. Scholarship is the major feature of this journal. Over the years, we have always insisted on reflecting the new achievements and discoveries of numismatics and monetary history research in our publications, striving to open up new fields on the basis of inheriting and carrying forward the traditions of numismatics, constantly advancing the scientific nature of numismatic research, and giving due consideration to the publicity and popularization of numismatic knowledge in the arrangement of contents. As a professional academic journal, it does not publish commercial advertisements, but it occasionally introduces some specialized cultural and creative products on the cover page. The current annual issuance is over 12,000 copies.

Yuan:After the change from a quarterly to a bimonthly journal, the 'Chinese Numismatics' has increased its content and research portion. Some high-level long scholarly articles account for a large percentage of the total. I participated in several national seminars on the Song dynasty coins, Sichuan coins, Silk Road coins, and copper plates last year. The speakers shared the latest research results, most of which are novel and insightful. Shandong's 'Qilu Coins' also has high-level articles. In the future, will the "Chinese Numismatics' choose such research results to publish, so that the journal will be closer to the public and reach a wider audience?

Zhou:Absolutely. Over the years, we've been very focused on incorporating good articles from national academic conferences.

Yuan:The last part is about you. You are an excellent administrator and a numismatic expert and scholar. During your previous term of office, what reforms and advances have you made to advance the Chinese Numismatic Museum to 'lead in China and be first-rate in the world', to promote Chinese numismatic culture, and to facilitate exchanges between Chinese and foreign coins?

Zhou:Since I took office, I strengthened the concept of founding a museum with academics given the numismatics originated from the ancient coins science which has both essences and errors. With the requirements of specialization, academization, and scientization, I vigorously promoted the construction of the discipline of numismatics and numismatic history. The first is to require the museum exhibition to absorb new academic achievements in a timely manner, especially new archaeological achievements. Second, I requested that 'Chinese Numismatics' should view manuscripts, and published articles should be firmly prevented from using incorrect terms and corrected terms into standard ones such as qi fa hua [齊法化], ying yuan [郢爰] and so on. The way to cite literature was also regulated. Third, I requested to review the topics of the Chinese Numismatic Society, and we must be strict with academics and abandon the thinking of sharing the cake equally. Fourth, I strengthened communication with the archaeological and financial communities and endeavored to promote the integration and sharing of cross-border and interdisciplinary academic achievements. For example, we organized academic conferences with the Qin-Han Archaeological Specialized Committee of the Chinese Archaeological Society, and we invited well-known archaeologists to the museum to do lectures and thematic academic exchanges. We also made academic lectures and reports at economic and financial institutes. Fifth, I took the lead to do some important academic topics, such as the study of the casting process of ancient Chinese coins, the scientific study of ancient Chinese silver ingots, the origin of coins, etc. Sixth, I maintained contact with the International Numismatics Council (INC), ICOMON, and its members. I took an active part in the relevant academic activities of the international numismatic organizations and some of the world's leading museums and universities. Overall, the results are obvious.

Yuan:Please introduce your academic research results and share your writings.

Zhou:My academic study focuses on numismatics and monetary history, bronze culture and smelting and casting history, and brass and zinc refining history. In my academic career of more than thirty years, I have mainly worked in the following aspects:

First, I have done systematic research on the history of brass and zinc refining in ancient China. It is proved that Chinese zinc refining was born in Wanli's reign of the Ming dynasty and that it was a self-invented technique rather than one that was passed down from India. The conclusion is expounded with the Triple Evidence Method from the perspective of the history of science and technology and science and technology archaeology. The paper on "Brass Coin Part" was awarded the Gold Coin Award by the Chinese Numismatic Society.

Second, I have made a systematic study on the alloy composition of ancient Chinese coins (covering more than 2,000 examples from the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods to the Qing dynasty), including the main components and trace elements. On this basis, scientific methods and quantitative criteria for assessing the quality of ancient coins were proposed, and a monograph, 'Research on the Alloy Composition of Ancient Chinese Coins' (Chung Hwa Book Co., 2004), was published, which was awarded the Gold Coin Award by the Chinese Numismatic Society.

Third, I have made a systematic study of the casting process of ancient Chinese coins. I demonstrated the direction of the evolution of the casting process (lowering the cost as much as possible, while improving the efficiency and increasing the degree of standardization as much as possible), and proposed that the stacked casting, the sand casting, and the later banknotes were the three great inventions in the field of monetary and financial affairs in ancient China. I have published a monograph, 'Research on the Ancient Chinese Coin Casting Process', and the related subject was awarded the second prize of the National Bank (Finance) Science and Technology Development Award (2006).

Fourth, I have made a systematic study of the ancient Chinese silver currency (silver ingots of all dynasties). I demonstrated the development of the ancient Chinese silver currency and the nature of the changes in the form of silver ingots and put forward a complete scientific methodology for the identification of the ancient silver ingots. I have published a book 'Scientific Research on the Ancient Silver Ingots of China', and the relevant subject was awarded the first prize in the National Bank (Finance) Science and Technology Development Award (2015).

Fifth, I examined early currencies from the perspective of archaeology and human history and put forward the theory that Chinese currency originated from jewelry and gifts.

Over the past 30 years, I have published more than 110 academic papers (including co-authored papers) in academic journals at home and abroad. I have published academic works (including co-authored works) such as 'Numismatics and History of Smelting and Casting' (Chung Hwa Book Co., 2002), 'Study on the Alloy Composition of Ancient Chinese Coins' (Chung Hwa Book Co., 2004), 'Numismatics and History of Smelting and Casting (II)' (Science Press, 2015), 'Scientific Research on Ancient Silver Ingots of China' (Science Publishing House' 2016), and 'Study on Casting Process of Ancient Chinese Coins' (Science Publishing House 2022). (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10  Mr. Zhou Weirong's Writings

Yuan:I would like to thank Director Zhou for accepting my interview in your busy schedule.

Zhou:You're welcome. Let's keep in touch.